Shmuel Ur (ur-innovation.com) was a research scientist in the IBM research lab in Haifa, Israel for 16 years, where he held the title of IBM Master Inventor. Later, he became an independent inventor (working with Intellectual Ventures and start-ups). Shmuel sold more then 40 ideas to IV, filed many on his own, and invented for many start-ups and larger companies. Shmuel received his Ph.D. in Algorithms Optimization and Combinatorics in 1994 in Carnegie Mellon University under Michael Trick and Nobel Prize winner Herbert Simon. Shmuel has more then 60 professional publications, more then 45 granted patents, more then 90 patent applications, and has given numerous talks and tutorials.